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Double-Blind, Double-Dummy, Randomized Study of Continuous Intrajejunal Infusion of Levodopa-Carbidopa Intestinal Gel in Advanced Parkinson’s Disease

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C. Warren Olanow, MD,*,1Karl Kieburtz, MD, MPH,2Per Odin, MD, PhD,3Alberto J. Espay, MD, MSc,4David G. Standaert, MD, PhD,5Hubert H. Fernandez, MD,6Arvydas Vanagunas, MD,7Ahmed A. Othman, PhD,8,9Katherine L. Widnell, MD, PhD,10Weining Z. Robieson, PhD,8Yili Pritchett, PhD,11Krai Chatamra, PhD,8Janet Benesh,8Robert A. Lenz, MD, PhD,10Angelo Antonini, MD, PhD,12 and the LCIG Horizon Study Group



Levodopa is the most effective therapy for Parkinson’s disease (PD), but chronic treatment is associated with the development of potentially disabling motor complications. Experimental studies suggest that motor complications are due to non-physiologic, intermittent administration of the drug, and can be reduced with continuous delivery. Levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) is a form of levodopa that can be delivered continuously through an intrajejunal percutaneous tube.


We performed a 12-week double-blind, double-dummy, double-titration, multi-center trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of LCIG compared to optimized, oral, immediate-release levodopa-carbidopa (LC-IR) in advanced PD patients with motor complications. The primary endpoint was change from baseline to final visit in motor “Off” time. Motor “On” time without troublesome dyskinesia was the key secondary endpoint.


71 patients with advanced PD were randomized to receive continuous LCIG infusion plus placebo LC-IR capsules (n=37) or to receive LC-IR capsules plus continuous placebo LCIG infusion (n=34). Both groups were titrated to optimal effect. 93% of subjects (n=66) completed the trial. In comparison to LC-IR, LCIG significantly reduced “Off” time by a mean (±SE) of 1·91±0·57 hours (P=0·0015) and increased “On” time without troublesome dyskinesia by a mean of 1·86±0·65 hours (P=0·006). Adverse events were primarily related to the surgical procedure and the device, and while potentially serious, were not associated with residual deficit or mortality.


In comparison to standard oral LC-IR, LCIG significantly reduced “Off” time and increased “On” time without troublesome dyskinesia in patients with advanced PD. Adverse events were largely due to the procedure and the device. Benefits are of greater magnitude than have been obtained with medical therapies to date, and represent the first demonstration of the benefit of continuous levodopa delivery in a double-blind controlled study.