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Additional Articles: 

  1. Corcos J, Gajewski J, Heritz D, Patrick A, Reid I, Schick E, Stothers L; Canadian Urological Association. Canadian Urological Association guidelines on urinary incontinence. Can J Urol. 2006 Jun;13(3):3127-38.
  2. Abrams P, Cardozo L, Fall M, Griffiths D, Rosier P, Ulmsten U, van Kerrebroeck P, Victor A, Wein A. The standardisation of terminology of lower urinary tract function: report from the Standardisation Sub-committee of the International Continence Society. Neurourol Urodyn. 2002;21(2):167-78.
  3. Wein AJ, Rackley RR. Overactive bladder: a better understanding of pathophysiology, diagnosis and management. J Urol. 2006 Mar;175(3 Pt 2):S5-10.
  4. Corcos J, Schick E. Prevalence of overactive bladder and incontinence in Canada. Can J Urol. 2004 Jun;11(3):2278-84.
  5. The management of lower urinary tract symptoms in men. National Clinical Guideline Centre. 2010.
  6. Sexton CC, Coyne KS, Kopp ZS, Irwin DE, Milsom I, Aiyer LP, Tubaro A, Chapple CR, Wein AJ; EpiLUTS Team. The overlap of storage, voiding and postmicturition symptoms and implications for treatment seeking in the USA, UK and Sweden: EpiLUTS. BJU Int. 2009 Apr;103 Suppl 3:12-23.
  7. François N et al. Chapter 7, In: Male lower urinary tract symptoms and benign prostatic hyperplasia, 2014.
  8. Lucas, MG et al. Guidelines on Urinary Incontinence. In: EAU Guidelines; edition presented at the 27th EAU Annual.
  9. Mulsant BH, Pollock BG, Kirshner M, Shen C, Dodge H, Ganguli M. Serum anticholinergic activity in a community-based sample of older adults: relationship with cognitive performance. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003 Feb;60(2):198-203.
  10. Maman K, Aballea S, Nazir J, Desroziers K, Neine ME, Siddiqui E, Odeyemi I, Hakimi Z. Comparative efficacy and safety of medical treatments for the management of overactive bladder: a systematic literature review and mixed treatment comparison. Eur Urol. 2014 Apr;65(4):755-65. 2013 Nov 18.
  11. Wagg A, Khullar V, Michel MC, Oelke M, Darekar A, Bitoun CE.  Long-term safety, tolerability and efficacy of flexible-dose fesoterodine in elderly patients with overactive bladder: open-label extension of the SOFIA trial. Neurourol Urodyn. 2014 Jan;33(1):106-14.
  12. Baum N, Suarez G, Appell RA. Urinary incontinence. Not a ‘normal’ part of aging. Postgrad Med. 1991 Aug;90(2):99-102, 107-9.
  13. Rosenthal AJ, McMurtry CT. Urinary incontinence in the elderly. Often simple to treat when properly evaluated. Postgrad Med. 1995 May;97(5):109-16, 121.
  14. J Urol. 1992 May;147(5):1298-302.
  15. Stoner E. The clinical effects of a 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor, finasteride, on benign prostatic hyperplasia. The Finasteride Study Group. J Urol. 1992 May;147(5):1298-302.


  1. Incontinence products –
  2. Educational website –
  3. Ontario College of Physiotherapists of Ontario –  (select Advanced Search, scroll down to Special Activities, select Assessing/rehabilitating pelvic musculature)