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Additional Articles: 

1. Irwin  et al. Eur Urol. 2006 Dec;50(6):1306-14; discussion 1314-5. Epub 2006 Oct 2. Population-based survey of urinary incontinence, overactive bladder, and other lower urinary tract symptoms in five countries: results of the EPIC study.  PMID: 17049716

2. Kay GG, Staskin DR, MacDiarmid S, McIlwain M, Dahl NV. Cognitive effects of oxybutynin chloride topical gel in older healthy subjects: a 1-week, randomized,  double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled study. Clin Drug Investig 2012;32:707-14. PMID: 22909146

3. DuBeau et al. J Urol. 2014 Feb;191(2):395-404. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2013.08.027. Epub 2013 Aug 21. Effect of fesoterodine in vulnerable elderly subjects with urgency incontinence: a double-blind, placebo controlled trial.  PMID: 23973522

4. Kay G et al. Eur Urol. 2006 Aug;50(2):317-26. Epub 2006 Apr 19.  Differential effects of the antimuscarinic agents darifenacin and oxybutynin ER on memory in older subjects. PMID: 16687205


  1. The International Consultation on Urological Diseases 6th Edition of the Incontinence book, edited by Paul Abrams et al.